Extropy or Anti-utopia? – “Posthuman” Society in Stanisław Lem’s The Futurogical Congress in the Context of Extropians’ Visions

People operating in the area of different currents of transhumanism present an optimistic vision of the development of our species, which, influenced by technology will transform into the civilisation of “posthumans”. Surely, more pessimistic forecasts, presented, for instance, by sci-fi authors, deserve attention. In his works, Stanisław Lem presented many interesting anti-utopian programmes which refer to various paths of mankind’s development. Therefore, the vision included in The Futurological Congress should be confronted with the fundamental postulates of one of the transhumanism’s currents – extropians.